Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) governs the trade of wild plants and animals to protect endangered species from over-exploitation. Countries become a party to CITES voluntarily, after which it is legally binding. CITES provides a framework and states parties must adopt their own implementing national legislation. Under CITES, the appointed management authority must issue permits or certificates for the import or export of certain specimens. CITES officially regulates endangered species listed in the treaty appendix (last updated in 2019), but countries can establish more restrictive laws that protect additional species.

Opened for signature3 Mar 1973
Entered into force1 Jul 1975
Latest update30 Apr 1983
Available languages
English Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Chinese (Simplified) 濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约
French Convention sur le commerce international des espèces de faune et de flore sauvages menacées d'extinction
Russian Конвенция о международной торговле видами дикой фауны и флоры, находящимися под угрозой исчезновения
Spanish Convención sobre el Comercio Internacional de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora Silvestres

States parties

CITES has 184 parties, including 183 states and the European Union. CITES entered into force 90 days after ratification by the tenth signatory state. After that day, CITES entered into force for each state party 90 days after the deposit of their instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Additionally, 150 parties have accepted the amendment to Article XI, which was adopted at Bonn, Germany on 22 June 1979 and entered into force on 13 April 1987. 103 parties have accepted the amendment to Article XXI, which was adopted at Gaborone, Botswana on 30 April 1983 and entered into force on 29 November 2013.

Download states parties (CSV, 8 kb)
Entered into force
AfghanistanParty30 Oct 198528 Jan 1986
AlbaniaParty27 Jun 200325 Sep 2003
AlgeriaParty23 Nov 198321 Feb 1984
AndorraParty6 Oct 20214 Jan 2022
AngolaParty2 Oct 201331 Dec 2013
Antigua and BarbudaParty8 Jul 19976 Oct 1997
ArgentinaParty8 Jan 19818 Apr 1981
ArmeniaParty23 Oct 200821 Jan 2009
AustraliaParty29 Jul 197627 Oct 1976
AustriaParty27 Jan 198227 Apr 1982
Showing 1 to 10 of 206 countries

The state has accepted, approved, ratified, or is otherwise party to the agreement, indicating consent to be bound to the agreement.

The state has signed, but not yet ratified or become an official party to the agreement. Where the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, the signature does not establish the consent to be bound. However, it is a means of authentication and expresses the willingness of the signatory state to continue the treaty-making process. The signature qualifies the signatory state to proceed to ratification, acceptance or approval. It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the agreement.

The state has not taken any actions with regard to the agreement.

Associate member
The state may have requirements for some of the statutory or non statutory aspects of an agreement, but would not confer all of the obligations of the agreement on the member. Associate members may not have voting rights.

The state is non-party to an agreement, but has the ability to attend meetings or other discussions, and otherwise participate in activities. Observers may be granted permission to speak at formal meetings.