Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO)

The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formally established by the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, or Marrakesh Agreement on 1 January 1995.

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) are annexes to this umbrella Agreement; all WTO member states are automatically bound to these treaties and do not undergo a separate signature and ratification process for them. The WTO is responsible for settling disputes that arise between member states under these trade agreements, and works with developing countries to support the development of technical trade laws and capacities.

This document includes: Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations; Declaration on the Contribution of the WTO to Achieving Greater Coherence in Global Economic Policymaking; Decision on Trade and Environment; Decision on the Acceptance of and Accession to the Agreement Establishing the WTO.

Opened for signature15 Apr 1994
Entered into force1 Jan 1995
Latest update15 Apr 2021
Available languages
English Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization
English Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization

States parties

The parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) became the original WTO member states after ratifying the Marrakesh Agreement, which entered into force on 1 January 1995. All other members have joined the organization as a result of negotiation, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and the current trade regime. An offer of accession is given once consensus is reached among members.

The WTO has 164 members and 25 observer governments.

Download states parties (CSV, 9 kb)
Entered into force
AfghanistanParty17 Dec 201529 Jun 201629 Jul 2016
AlbaniaParty17 Jul 20009 Aug 20008 Sep 2000
AlgeriaObserver15 Apr 1994
AngolaParty15 Apr 199424 Oct 199623 Nov 1996
Antigua and BarbudaParty15 Apr 19941 Jan 1995
ArgentinaParty15 Apr 199429 Dec 19941 Jan 1995
ArmeniaParty10 Dec 20026 Jan 20035 Feb 2003
AustraliaParty21 Dec 19941 Jan 1995
AustriaParty15 Apr 19946 Dec 19941 Jan 1995
Showing 1 to 10 of 206 countries

The state has accepted, approved, ratified, or is otherwise party to the agreement, indicating consent to be bound to the agreement.

The state has signed, but not yet ratified or become an official party to the agreement. Where the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, the signature does not establish the consent to be bound. However, it is a means of authentication and expresses the willingness of the signatory state to continue the treaty-making process. The signature qualifies the signatory state to proceed to ratification, acceptance or approval. It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the agreement.

The state has not taken any actions with regard to the agreement.

Associate member
The state may have requirements for some of the statutory or non statutory aspects of an agreement, but would not confer all of the obligations of the agreement on the member. Associate members may not have voting rights.

The state is non-party to an agreement, but has the ability to attend meetings or other discussions, and otherwise participate in activities. Observers may be granted permission to speak at formal meetings.