Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity governs the transnational movement of living modified organisms (LMOs), often referred to colloquially as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The treaty allows countries to manage and restrict the introduction of LMOs into their ecosystems through Advanced Informed Agreements. Article 20 established a Biosafety Clearing-House, which documents national records related to biosafety laws, risk assessments, and other content; reference records from biosafety organizations, laboratories, and other non-governmental parties, and documents from the CBD Secretariat. 

Opened for signature29 Jan 2000
Entered into force11 Sep 2003
Latest update29 Jan 2000
Available languages
English Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Arabic بروتوكول قرطاجنة للسلامة البيولوجية
Chinese (Simplified) 卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书
French Protocole de Cartagena sur la Prévention des Risques Biotechnologiques
Russian Картахенский протокол по биобезопасности
Spanish Protocolo de Cartagena sobre Seguridad de la Biotecnología

States parties

Countries automatically become a party to the Cartagena Protocol 90 days after depositing their instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. Download the data in this table to view any reservations, understandings, and declarations (RUDs).

Download states parties (CSV, 11 kb)
Entered into force
AfghanistanParty20 Feb 201321 May 2013
AlbaniaParty8 Feb 20059 May 2005
AlgeriaParty25 May 20005 Aug 20043 Nov 2004
AngolaParty27 Feb 200928 May 2009
Antigua and BarbudaParty24 May 200010 Sep 20039 Dec 2003
ArgentinaSignatory24 May 2000
ArmeniaParty30 Apr 200429 Jul 2004
AustriaParty24 May 200027 Aug 200211 Sep 2003
Showing 1 to 10 of 206 countries

The state has accepted, approved, ratified, or is otherwise party to the agreement, indicating consent to be bound to the agreement.

The state has signed, but not yet ratified or become an official party to the agreement. Where the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, the signature does not establish the consent to be bound. However, it is a means of authentication and expresses the willingness of the signatory state to continue the treaty-making process. The signature qualifies the signatory state to proceed to ratification, acceptance or approval. It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the agreement.

The state has not taken any actions with regard to the agreement.

Associate member
The state may have requirements for some of the statutory or non statutory aspects of an agreement, but would not confer all of the obligations of the agreement on the member. Associate members may not have voting rights.

The state is non-party to an agreement, but has the ability to attend meetings or other discussions, and otherwise participate in activities. Observers may be granted permission to speak at formal meetings.