Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing

The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity governs the distribution of benefits (financial earnings, academic credit, etc.) from discoveries made using genetic resources. Under the Nagoya Protocol, states parties are required to provide prior informed consent when taking genetic resources from another country, and to negotiate Mutually Agreed Terms (MATs) on the benefits that may be accrued from research and development performed using those resources. The Nagoya Protocol does not specifically include pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses), which has created some controversy over efforts to negotiate MATs related to medical countermeasure development. 

States parties are required to enact domestic access and benefit sharing legislation for genetic resources.

Opened for signature29 Oct 2010
Entered into force12 Oct 2014
Latest update29 Oct 2010
Available languages
English Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing
Arabic بروتوكول ناغويا بشأن الحصول وتقاسم المنافع
Chinese (Simplified) 关于获取和惠益分享的名古屋议定书
French Protocole de Nagoya sur l'accès et le partage des avantages
Russian Нагойский протокол о доступе и совместном использовании выгод
Spanish El Protocolo de Nagoya sobre Acceso y Participación en los Beneficios

States parties

Countries automatically become a party to the Nagoya Protocol 90 days after depositing their instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. Download the data in this table to view any reservations, understandings, and declarations (RUDs).

Download states parties (CSV, 14 kb)
Entered into force
AfghanistanParty6 Jun 20184 Sep 2018
AlbaniaParty29 Jan 201312 Oct 2014
AlgeriaSignatory2 Feb 2011
AngolaParty6 Feb 20177 May 2017
Antigua and BarbudaParty28 Jul 201112 Dec 201612 Mar 2017
ArgentinaParty15 Nov 20119 Dec 20169 Mar 2017
AustraliaSignatory20 Jan 2012
AustriaParty23 Jun 201120 Jul 201818 Oct 2018
Showing 1 to 10 of 206 countries

The state has accepted, approved, ratified, or is otherwise party to the agreement, indicating consent to be bound to the agreement.

The state has signed, but not yet ratified or become an official party to the agreement. Where the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, the signature does not establish the consent to be bound. However, it is a means of authentication and expresses the willingness of the signatory state to continue the treaty-making process. The signature qualifies the signatory state to proceed to ratification, acceptance or approval. It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the agreement.

The state has not taken any actions with regard to the agreement.

Associate member
The state may have requirements for some of the statutory or non statutory aspects of an agreement, but would not confer all of the obligations of the agreement on the member. Associate members may not have voting rights.

The state is non-party to an agreement, but has the ability to attend meetings or other discussions, and otherwise participate in activities. Observers may be granted permission to speak at formal meetings.