Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) governs international efforts to conserve biological diversity, and ensure an equitable distribution of the benefits arising from genetic resources. The treaty recognizes member states’ sovereignty over their natural resources, including genetic material (Art. 15), which has proved controversial when exercised over pathogens.  There are two protocols to the Convention on Biological Diversity: the Cartagena Protocol, which governs the handling and transport of living modified organisms (LMOs), and the Nagoya Protocol, which governs the equitable distribution of benefits arising from a country’s genetic resources.

Opened for signature5 Jun 1992
Entered into force29 Dec 1993
Latest update4 Jun 1992
Available languages
English Convention on Biological Diversity
Arabic اتفاقية التنوع البيولوجي
Chinese (Simplified) 生物多样性公约
French Convention sur la diversité biologique
Russian Конвенция о биологическом разнообразии
Spanish Convenio sobre la Diversidad Biológica

States parties

Countries automatically become a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity 90 days after depositing their instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. Download the data in this table to view any reservations, understandings, and declarations (RUDs).

Download states parties (CSV, 20 kb)
Entered into force
AfghanistanParty12 Jun 199219 Sep 200218 Dec 2002
AlbaniaParty5 Jan 19945 Apr 1994
AlgeriaParty13 Jun 199214 Aug 199512 Nov 1995
AndorraParty4 Feb 20155 May 2015
AngolaParty12 Jun 19921 Apr 199830 Jun 1998
Antigua and BarbudaParty5 Jun 19929 Mar 199329 Dec 1993
ArgentinaParty12 Jun 199222 Nov 199420 Feb 1995
ArmeniaParty13 Jun 199214 May 199329 Dec 1993
AustraliaParty5 Jun 199218 Jun 199329 Dec 1993
AustriaParty13 Jun 199218 Aug 199416 Nov 1994
Showing 1 to 10 of 206 countries

The state has accepted, approved, ratified, or is otherwise party to the agreement, indicating consent to be bound to the agreement.

The state has signed, but not yet ratified or become an official party to the agreement. Where the signature is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, the signature does not establish the consent to be bound. However, it is a means of authentication and expresses the willingness of the signatory state to continue the treaty-making process. The signature qualifies the signatory state to proceed to ratification, acceptance or approval. It also creates an obligation to refrain, in good faith, from acts that would defeat the object and the purpose of the agreement.

The state has not taken any actions with regard to the agreement.

Associate member
The state may have requirements for some of the statutory or non statutory aspects of an agreement, but would not confer all of the obligations of the agreement on the member. Associate members may not have voting rights.

The state is non-party to an agreement, but has the ability to attend meetings or other discussions, and otherwise participate in activities. Observers may be granted permission to speak at formal meetings.