General vaccination policies

Data last updated 1 Mar 2024
Childhood vaccination is required
No childhood vaccination requirement
Data not collected

Source: We consulted the national legislature websites for each country to find their childhood vaccination policies. These sites were accessed between October 2023 and February 2024. The development of this subtopic was informed by Eagan et al, Rezza, and [Garnier et al](https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa088 https://www.who.int/teams/immunization-vaccines-and-biologicals/essential-programme-on-immunization).

Routine childhood vaccination is a critical component of global health security. However, over the past decade, regional variations in vaccine uptake trends have highlighted remaining challenges to ensuring adequate global vaccination coverage. Enforceable vaccine policy presents one approach to increasing vaccine coverage. In many countries, vaccine mandates have been an effective tool for reducing outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Due to their efficacy, vaccinations have been a significant area of focus over the past decade, yet the majority of studies on vaccine coverage have focused on the factors contributing to negative vaccination attitudes or anecdotal evidence on interventions that have increased vaccine uptake. While these areas of research are valuable, the global regulatory environment foundational to contextualizing rates of childhood vaccine uptake remains relatively unexplored. 

Here, we map and analyze the legally enforceable policies that require the vaccination of a child with at least one vaccination. We captured all policies related to the topic that currently exist within a country. Plans for country acceptance and implementation of the World Health Organization’s Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) were not included, as these were not found to be legally binding in any nation. 

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